ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN CHILLI PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR MORPHOLOGICAL AND FRUIT TRAITS UNDER HOT CLIMATE OF UMERKOT, SINDH
Keywords:chilli pepper, cluster analysis, genetic divergence, principal component analysis (PCA)
Thirty-two genotypes of chilli from three different sources (local dandicuts, AVRDC and PGRI PARC) were evaluated for the presence of genetic divergence among them for different agro-economic traits i.e., plant height, stem girth, fruit length, fruit girth, number of fruits per plant, number of seed per fruit, fresh fruit weight and dry fruit weight at Arid Zone Agricultural Research Institute, Umerkot, Sindh during 2018. All these genotypes were found to be significantly different from each other for all the studied traits. For further diversity analysis, multivariate analyses like principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis were also performed to figure out the traits responsible for maximum variability and grouping of genotypes according to their similarities and differences for their future utilization in chilli breeding programs. PCA analysis showed that first four PCs exhibited 82.79% of the total variability among these 32 chilli genotypes. Cluster analysis showed four different sub-clusters and the genotypes from every single source merge in each sub-cluster, thus showing that chilli genotypes are from different geographical backgrounds. Based on these results, the chilli genotypes can be further utilized in future chilli improvement programs in Pakistan. Genotypes AZRI-DS-14, AZRI-DS-01 and AVPP-9804 showed better performance.