EVALUATION OF ANTI-PROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF PEGANUM HARMALA (HARMAL) AGAINST BABESIOSIS IN CATTLE
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Keywords:herbal, infection, parasite, resistance, tick-borne
Babesia gradually attains resistance against the allopathic medicines due to their frequent use. To overcome the resistance, herbal therapy is getting more attention. The current study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganum harmala against babesiosis in cattle. The blood was collected from ear vein of cattle having high infestation of ticks. A thin blood smear was prepared and stained. Through survey 74 animals were found positive for tick-borne pathogens with an overall prevalence of 19.27%. Babesia sp. was the most prevalent (9.38%; 36/384) haemoparasite, followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.20%, 20/384) and Anaplasma sp. (4.69%, 18/384). All blood samples were subjected to PCR and it was found that 40/384 (10.41%) blood samples were harbouring Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. From positive animals for Babesia 30 cattles were randomly selected and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each viz A, B and C, all groups were tested with the water extract of P. harmala @ 7.5 mg kg-1, 10 mg kg-1 and 12.5 mg kg-1 body weight by intramuscular route, at interval of 12, 24 and 36 h. Ten healthy animals were selected as control in group D. Three animals with moderate infection, 8-9 animals of group A, B and C were recovered, during 48 h after treatment. Two animals each from A, B and one from group C were not cured and died. Five animals from group A were not cured till 36 h of the treatment. Group D of healthy untreated animals were well as they were. Results showed that there was a significant increase in WBCs, including increase in leukocytes and neutrophils in animals infected, whereas number of RBCs and HB decreases. This study concluded that infected cattle treated with water extract of P. harmala 12.5 mg kg-1, recovered early (P<0.01) compared to that of 7.5 and 10 mg kg-1.